History about blood donations.

blood donationWHO conducts awareness campaigns, each year focusing on an issue. Here we are looking at the World Blood Donor Day Campaign and focus this year is to ensure safe bold for saving mothers. The pregnancy and childbirth related complications are high and India ranks highest in neonatal and maternal deaths. One major cause of being severe bleeding after childbirth. The WHO campaign this year focuses on timely access to safe blood and blood products is essential for all countries ad a part of comprehensive approach to prevent maternal deaths. History about blood donations.  The first successful blood transfusion was accomplished in 1818 but as the knowledge and research was insufficient there were failures. It was only 80 yrs later that the variation in RBC was discovered. With this discovery came the procedure of matching blood before donating it. the blood groups are A, B, AB and O then came the discovery of the Rh or the rhesus factor, which came up with +Rh or –Rh grouping. During the World War I the issue was preserving and transporting blood, for the soldiers, the process of effectively preserving, transporting and transfusion blood was achieved only during the 2nd world war. Major cities of United States saw blood banks in 1947 and blood donation was campaigned as a civic responsibility. Centrifuging and freezing of the blood now allows us to use each element to treat different disease. With all this advancement we have new regulations governing the donations and transfusion of blood as it has been identified as the pathway of transfer of Hepatitis C, HIV and other diseases. Human blood is precious and cannot be manufactured outside the human body. Millions of times each year, human blood is required to save the lives of people who suffer from disease or who are victims of accidents. WHO commemorates June 14th as world blood donation awareness day.


History of hypnosis.

shammi-hypnosisHistory of hypnosis.

1734-1815 an Austrian physician Franz Anton Mesmer believed that there was a fluid in the nerves. The blockage of the flow this flow would result in disease. He used techniques initially with magnets and then with his hands to unblock the pathway of these fluids. Mesmer became the acknowledged father of this therapy and his technique was called mesmerism.

Jean Martin Charcot (1825-93) uses hypnosis to deal with hysterics.

Hypolyte Bernheim (1837-1919) regarded hypnosis as a sleep mode where the subject focuses on a suggestion made by the hypnotist there by focusing on the psychological nature of hypnosis.

1840 John esdail a surgeon form UK used hypnosis to anaesthetise his patients prior to surgery. He called it mesmeric sleep.

1841: James braid used the term hypnotism to make it subject cantered instead of the prevailing operator centred therapy called as Mesmerism. James braid refers to the healing methods of the Egyptians, Hindu’s and Greeks.

By 1920 experimental and investigation by psychiatrists like Clark. L. Hull (1884-1957) demystified hypnosis saying that it was essentially a normal part of human nature, where the subject’s imagination played an important role. Some subjects being more susceptible than others.

Ishammi-hypnotherapyn 1955 British medical association accepted the teaching of hypnosis in medical colleges. In 1958 American medical association followed suit.

Hypnosis is a useful tool both in medical practise and dentistry. Particularly in treating addictions. But should be conducted in professional controlled setting.

Misuse of hypnosis can lead to dire consequences.